- We can use Python as a basic calculator for addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponent
- We can use the equal sign to save results
- The two major numeric types are floating point (float) and integer (int)
Python as a Calculator
Computers are good at math and so is Python. We can use Python like a calculator with the standard arithmetic operators for addition (+), subtraction (-), multiplication (*), division (/) and exponent (**).
When we combine multiple operators on one line they are executed in the order we know from school. First comes the exponent. Then multiplication and division. Finally addition and subtraction.
2 ** 2 * 5 # Exponent precedes multiplication # 20 2 ** 2 / 5 # Exponent precedes division # 0.8 2 * 2 + 5 # Multiplication precedes addition # 9 2 * 2 - 5 # Multiplication precedes subtraction # -1 2 / 2 + 5 # Division precedes addition # 6.0 2 / 2 - 5 # Division precedes subtraction # 0.2857142857142857
If we want to change the order of operation, we can use parentheses. Let’s use them to see how the results above would look if the order of operation was reversed.
2 ** (2 * 5) # 1024 2 ** (2 / 5) # 1.3195079107728942 2 * (2 + 5) # 14 2 * (2 - 5) # -6 2 / (2 + 5) # 0.2857142857142857 2 / (2 - 5) # -0.6666666666666666
Parentheses can do many different things in Python, which we will talk about later. When used with arithmetic operators they change the order of operation. Whatever appears in parentheses is resolved first. Many calculators have a basic memory function and we can easily save results in Python.
To save results of mathematical operations we can use the equal (=) operator. On the left we put a name that we want to assign the result to and on the right we put the operation that we want to save.
save = 5 + 7 save # 12
In this example we assign the result 12 to the name save. Once we save a result under a name we can reuse it in an arithmetic expression. If a name stores a number it will just be evaluated as a number when it appears with a mathematical operator.
save = 5 + 7 10 + save # 22
The equal operator is essential in Python. Here we are using it to save the result of a mathematical operation. Later we will learn that it is used to assign any kind of object to a name. A name is what allows us to refer to an object. Objects are very important in Python. We will learn all about that later but even in the seemingly simple realm of numbers there are different kinds of objects
Floating Point Numbers and Integers
You may have noticed that sometimes numbers have a dot as a decimal delimiter and some numbers don’t. That is because numbers can be floating point numbers (float for short) or integers (int for short). Those are different numerical types. What kind of number we get depends on the arithmetic operation used and the types of numbers involved. To create a specific type of number we can simply add the dot (.) to the number. To check what kind of object we created we can use the type() function.
integer = 3 type(integer) # int floating = 3.0 type(floating) # float
So 3.0 generates a float and 3 generates an integer. In Python3 (the Python you should be using!) the division operator (/) always generates a floating point number, regardless of the numbers involved.
div = 4 / 2 div # 2.0 type(div) # float
In this case, both numbers are integers (four and two) and four can be divided by two without remainder. Division returns a float anyway. With multiplication, addition and subtraction, the situation is slightly more complicated. The type of the result depends on the type of the numbers involved. If one of the numbers is a float, the result will be float.
integer = 4 * 2 integer # 8 type(integer) # int floating = 4 * 2.0 floating # 8.0 type(floating) # float
For now this seems like a pointless excercise. Mathematically there is no difference between 8.0 and 8. Later we will learn why the types of objects matters. Even the difference between a floating eight and an integer eight can be important. For example, when we index into a list, the number we use as an index must be an integer.
We learned about the most important mathematical operators, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and exponent. When those operators appear together, operator precedence decides which operation is performed first. The precedence order is the same we learned in school. We can use parentheses to change the order of operation. Operations in parentheses are executed earlier. Furthermore, we learned that we can save results by assigning a name to them. We can assign a name with the equal operator. Finally, we learned that there are different numeric types. There are integers and floating point numbers. Why the difference between them matters will become more clear later.